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MUNICIPALITY KARNOBAT
 
Location
Karnobat municipality is located in the south-eastern part of the Republic of Bulgaria and it is included in the administrative territorial boundaries of Burgas region. Rishki passage connects the municipality with North Bulgaria. A part of Karnobat-Aitos Balkan is located in the northern part of the territory.. Hisar hills raise to the south of the town of Karnobat.
The municipal territory of Karnobat municipality is 806 sq.m., 87.37% of which is an agricultural fund, 9.81% forest fund and 2.82% “Residential areas” fund.
History
The Karnobat region, located in front of the south approaches of the Rishki and Varbishki passes, features an ancient history, dating as back as the Neolith era. Villages and tumuli reveal traces of life from the neolith and Iron Age, rich settlement life during the antiquity and Middle Ages. The town of Karnobat was mentioned under different names in the documents from the Turkish registers and travel notes: Karinovassa. Karinabad, Karnovo…
Karnobat
After the foundation of the Bulgarian state in 681, because of its exceptional role, the lands of the Karnobat region were field of many battles between Bulgaria and Byzantium. Markeli fortress, a south Episcopal and military center, located 7,5 km west of Karnobat, has been the most significant place of interest since the times of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. During the Ottoman rules, the town was an important administrative and trade center included in the Silistra district. The fact that the Bulgarian priest Stoiko Vladislavov (known as Sofronii Vrachanski, one of the prominent men of the Bulgarian national revival) performed the service in Karnobat parish is indicative of the revival processes that took place in the region from 1791 to 1792.

During the Renaissance Karnobat became the rallying point for cultural and educational development of the region. St. Yoan Theologian Church was built in 1838. Razvitie Reading Club (now St. Kiril i Metodii Reading Club) one of the first reading clubs in South-Eastern Bulgaria was established in 1862 and a non-clerical school was opened in 1864.

The town had a significant contribution to the religious struggles during the Renaissance - in the 19th century the active and public-spirited citizens of Karnobat expelled the bishop of Anhialo and in this way they completely eliminated the Greek influence.

During the Russian-Turkish war (1877-1878) the region became a victim of outrageous bashi-bazouks and Circassians.

The Liberation of Karnobat on 24, January 1878 gave grounds for huge social and economic reforms. The town strengthened its positions as a cultural and educational center. About 22 periodicals reflect its new appearance.

The total territory of Karnobat municipality is 806 sq.m. Its earth formations are mainly flat. Karnobat-Aytos mountain merges into Karnobat valley. To the south of the town of Karnobat raise Hisar hills. The valley of Mochuritsa river represents accumulative type of earth formations.

In the whole municipality the terrain is easily approachable. Rishki passage connects the municipality with North Bulgaria. The average above sea level height is174 m.

Climate  
The territory of Karnobat municipality is within the transitional continental climatic region. The climate is under the influence of the oceanic air masses, which come from west and north-west and the continental ones from north-east. The terrain conditions and the closeness with the Black sea are additional factors, which influence the climatic elements. The air annual average temperature (11.4°Ñ) and the average monthly temperature in January (0.1°Ñ) determine the climate of the region as a mild one.
Soils  

Several types of soils are widespread in the municipality.

The leached soils survive on flat and slightly drained surfaces. They are with crumbled structure. They are distinguished with high mineral content, significant wetting ability and unfavourable physical and mechanical properties. Although they are rich of soil nutrients for improving the nourishing regime they need fertilizing with organic and mineral composts. They are the most spread soils in the municipality. They are suitable for cultivation of all types of agricultural cultures.

There are leached maroon soils in the region of the town of Karnobat. The structure of the upper layer is very dusty, but it is comparatively good. It becomes worse in the lower layers. Water permeability is law and the nutrients are limited, which necessitates a huge mixed nitric and phosphoric burning. These soils are suitable mainly for field crops.

There are alluvial soils along Mochuritsa river valley. They have favourable physical and mechanical properties, water and thermal conditions and upper layer waters. They are suitable for cultivation of almost all types of vegetable, alfalfa, beetroot and others.

Mineral resources  

The municipality is poor of mineral resources. Quarries for construction materials with local and regional importance are found:

Sands - the quarry is to the north of Tserovski artificial lake, almost immediately by the river-bank at about 2-3km. southeast of the village of Venets. The productive layer is formed by Pliocene materials. The terrain is occupied with fields.

Peat - it is in the bog territory at about 1 km. south-west of the village of Venets, with an area about 6 sq .m. till now the deposits are not explored yet.

Clays - there is a clay layer under the peat. Two other deposits are found near the town of Karnobat. The first quarry deposits are calculated to 4 million cubic meters and the annual extraction - 80 thousand cubic meters. The other quarry is with capacity of 432 thousand cubic meters and annual extraction - 40 thousand cubic meters.

Water resoureces

 

The territory is drained by Mochuritsa river, which flows into Tundzha river and its length is 85.9 km, and Rusokastrenska river, which flows into Mandrensko lake.

The surface flow is formed by rainfalls and to a small extent by snow thawing. Due to the frequent and long summer drains and the high vapours during this period the small streams get dry and the bigger rivers reduce extremely their quantities.

There are constructed artificial lakes and micro-lakes with average area 50-80 decares on many of the feeders. They are used for watering.

The underground waters which have more constant debit are important for the water supply of the municipality. The lithological structure and the conditions of the occurrence of the separate types of rocks have determined the formation of primed and leaked waters. All river ledges along the rivers in the municipality are classified as primed waters. The leaked waters are bound to separate cracks in the rock types. They are used for supply of drinking water.

Drilling surveys for the necessities of water supply have been made for almost all residential areas.

The biggest prognosticated quantities show the data for the water basin in the village of Asparuhovo and the village of Smolnik - 15 l/sec. The determined water quantities of underground waters on the territory of the municipality are sufficient for the fulfillment of its demands. The shortage is provided by water economy system "Kamchiya lake" - 200 l/sec

Flora

Regarding the flora the territory is classified to the Thracian forest vegetation region, which includes mountain hills and lower lands - to the south of the Balkan.

The forest tree vegetation is compounded of deciduous leaf falling forests - homogeneous and mixed forests of cerris-oak, oak-tree, hornbeam. Mixed cultivation of ash-tree, elm-tree, common hornbeam, cerris oak, maple and along with them willow, poplar and others are spread along the inlet areas and the riverside lands of the rivers and the streams. There are mixed forests along the hill earth formations and the strongly segmented hill slopes with maroon forest soils. Wide spread among the bushes are sumach, thorn, hawthorn, cornet-tree and others.

In the field region the natural forest vegetation is substituted by an agricultural one. Many herbs that have application in the pharmaceutics are spread in the mountain as well as in the field region along with various forest and culture vegetation. All over the region there are wild briar, hawthorn, nettle, dandelion, blackthorn, common balm, plantain, chamomile, white milfoil, peppermint, thyme, marjoram, primrose, St. John's wort, lime-tree, walnut-tree.

The edible boletus and the chanterelle are important for the mushroom-growing.

Fauna  

Although low, Karnobat mountain has a rich fauna variety. Here there are:

from the mammals - deer, wild boar, jackal, wild duck, badger, polecat, rabbit and others.

from the rodents - squirrel, hamster, dormouse and others .

from the birds - hawk, falcon, hawk, quail, woodcock, turtle-dove, pigeon, owlets (species under protection) and others.

from the reptiles - tortoise (species under protection), lizards, viper, motley grass-snake and others.

In the spring and winter period in the region there is a different kind of game -snipes, wild ducks, rarely geese.

The hunting fauna is represented by small game and has a local significance. The total hunting area is 57 700 ha. Its is managed by Association of Hunting and Fishing - Karnobat.

The fishing is concentrated mainly along Mochuritsa river. In it there is barbell, chub, gudgeon. The artificial water basins are planted with carps.

Natural gifts, places and areas under protection
At about 15-16 km. south from Karnobat, Straldzha bog is situated between Straldzha and the villages of Antolovo, Lozenets, Venets and Devetnitsi. In the beginning of XX century it is the biggest lake in Bulgaria. Different waders - the swan and the whooping swan, the big egret, goose and others find favourable conditions of life in Straldzha bog. Most of the species are included into the Red book of Bulgaria for rare and protected from vanishing species.
Economics  

Due to the complete crises in the economics of the country in the reform period and the loss of some traditional markets in the East European countries, the company production activity shows decrease tendencies. Production capacities are explored no more than 50%.

In the sector "Trade" the competition has increased. The places of commerce have increased from 301 in 1997 to 398 in 1998, in the public sector there is a certain decrease from 32 to 20, and in the private - an increase from 269 to 378.

Sector "Construction" is not significant for the municipality. There is a municipal company which is at a loss of its activity The other construction companies have an insignificant share.

The services are with a stable tendency of existence and stability considering the abilities of the tradesmen. There is a certain decline in the demand for sewing services.

The contemporary structure of continuity is connected to a certain degree with agricultural production not only in the municipality but in the whole region as well. Regarding this the following enterprises should be mentioned: SLTD “Zarno”/Brain/ ( the ex-mill factory), SLTD “Karnobatplod” (Karnobat fruit) (the ex canning factory “G. Hardalov”), “Karnota” LTD (the ex packing-house “Rodopa”), “Remont-serviz” /Repairing-service/ SLTD (the ex repairing factory "Bolgar”), Company “Textile” SLTD (ex “Textile”), “SEM-ÊÀR-IT” LTD ( the ex enterprise “Sortovi semena” / "Sowing Seeds"), The factory for agricultural equipment - now Commercial association “ÊÀÌÒ” ( the ex factory “Karnobat commune”), company “Laktis” (ex packing-house).

In 1981 an enterprise "Centre for agrarian chemical service" - the town of Karnobat, which since 1990 functions as a State company "Himagroshtit" has been established for the municipal agricultural necessities. It provides complex services for crops protection and fertilizing, consulting activity, repair and maintenance of agricultural equipment, commercial activity in the country and abroad.

The production funds in Karnobat municipality are not equally devided in the residential area net. The main economic potential, production, wharehouse and other funds are located in the town of Karnobat and its production zone.

The total area of production and warehouse zone is 145.16 ha.17 industrial enterprises, 4 enterprises of the sector "Construction", 2 transport enterprises, 8 comercial and warehouse enterprises, 4 enterprises of sector "Agriculture" and 6 enterprises of another character are located there. Several commercial and warehouse enterprises are located out of the production zone.

Major structure defining branches of the industry are the machine construction and food, wine and tobacco industry. Nevertheless that the sewing industry is represented only by one enterprise “Karina”PLC. It takes a significant place in the economic structure of the town and municipality..

Future perspective for development are mainly connected with the presence of free production capacities with technological equipment of modern type and highly qualified labour capacity.

   
Markeli fortress, a medieval Christian complex
The first information for Karnobat was written in 1153 and included in The Geography by Al Idrisi - an Arabian traveler and scientist. The historical sources show that since the 19th century up to present days the town has always been an administrative, economic and commercial centre with a traditional yearly fair.

 
Address:  
Municipality Karnobat  
Mr. Zhelko Dermendzhiev
chief expert - programs and development

 
12, Bld. Bulgaria  
BG-8400 - Karnobat  
Phone - (0559) 2-28-03, 2-28-73;  
Fax - (0559) 71-65  
Å-Mail: karnobat@mail.bg  
Internet - http://karnobat.acstre.com